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To draw these gates, first select . Switch and a ground. Generally speaking, the starting point of the transition process depends upon the threshold point of the gate in question, and the finishing point of the transition process depends upon the threshold point of the following gate. This table is called a truth table. 3 shows a CMOS inverter circuit. To learn more, view ourPrivacy Policy. 12 0 obj Thus, x * y == y * x. The former has a wide operating-temperature range, suitable for military use, and the latter has a narrower temperature range, suitable for industrial use. October 29, 2007 - 4 - Version 5.3e . Exceeding the specified maximum fan-out (or load) may cause a malfunction because the circuit cannot supply the power demanded from it. The experiment was also aimed at study of the behavior of the gates such as 74xx series TTL gates by using voltage range of 0 and +5. AND gate truth table. The Boolean expression of AND gate is Y = A.B. If one input to a 3 input AND gate were accidentally connected to Ground(shorted to Ground), how would the output of the AND gate react no matterwhat the other 2 input levels might be. Use two sections of the DIP switch to set the inputs to 0 or 1 and fill in the Truth Table with the output logic levels. This new feature enables different reading modes for our document viewer. Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Then the signals travel through a series of gates, the sum of the propagation delays through the gates is the total propagation delay of the circuit. endobj We began to construct a circuit diagram composed mainly of the AND, OR and an INVERTER logic gate for each of the two functions and listed every output voltages we measured from the VOM. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. For part 3, The principle of operation is that the circuit operates on just two voltage levels, called logic 0 and logic 1. <> G63hai"&KRj9it8sl! 14 0 obj You know how silicon (which is made from sand), is the basic building block for Integrated circuits? Ans: The output of the OR gate will be high no matter what the other 2 input levels might be. 2638 Words11 Pages. The common ECL type is designated as the 10,000 series. In practice, this is advantageous since NOR and NAND gates are . Logic gates are used to carry out logical operations on single or multiple binary inputs and give one binary output. Fig. ECL is used only in systems requiring high-speed operation. Categories . The text ptovides a clear and easily understandable discussion of logic circuit design without the use of unnecessary formalism. <> Then we connected the switch to the power and got a output voltage of 0V. Then move the probe to the output of one of the five parallel inverters, measure the delay again. Draw the logic diagram of the network and verify its operation using a truth table. Fundamentals of Digital Logic with VHDL Design teaches the basic design techniques for logic circuits. <> !'. below shows the circuit symbol, Boolean function, and truth. AND gate The AND gate is an electronic circuit that gives a high output (1) only if all its inputs are high. 8j*uFskX5hTBue:%dpN?6=I4^lKABKK /qq}f=Sry/ldeOFc(o@EPn8^ZV~i.&X56mHDv6 8 gl[rf_=5 W1I7BicDlDA%5kH AQ0#6+mDEuFOTgmae.ji7 bNl1Pi9>w3QLp7CM[R5y]m'#O/RTP)rd2{tZ9SB8bH]iGrScZ4~$AOe@zD @ 'A=@d?-j>7 <> Under what input conditions is the output of a 2 input AND gate HIGH? 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The function is . we connected the switch to the ground we got a output voltage of 5V. Fig. endobj endobj Procedure 2: Use four of the switches in the Digital Output section of the . Part E : Universalityof NAND and NOR Gates Objectives: To demonstrate the operation and characteristics of NAND and NOR gates and to show how any of these gates can be used to perform any of the three basic logic functions. Secondly, we construct another circuit using 5V DC Power, a 7432 (OR gate), 2 SPDT Switches and a ground. The TA will explain how to use the ADALM1000, solder-less breadboard, and CMOS logic chips. Construct the truth table for each gate. <> x[]o}Gy\Eld}P'1rmE36y[4DQpI g.hp\a|KeY>gZX(l8$'g?2rA1;N'45C5F n2#Tp9pxwDz_^\ULR-4eh To verify logic truth tables from the voltages measured. But [y ]1!1Cvg (M1y/q+9@ "nIC GAzc8-n]1pVk ~1fq#+_gk_+FPhp"Bl29] (2)The NOR gate:From OR and NOT gate. However, it can be restricted due to the given physical space in the device. 6 0 obj Vary the inputs of each gate and measure the output. New York City College of Technology | City University of New York. endobj When drawing a truth table, the binary values 0 and 1 are used. 19 0 obj PDF | This paper aims to present a deflection prediction model of Near Surface Mounted (NSM) Reinforce Concrete (RC) beams using the Fuzzy Logic Expert. Also show their logic symbol, use the function in an equation and show the Truth Table for one gate in each of the integrated circuits. f?3-]T2j),l0/%b Lab Report: Digital Logic Figure 9 - Results Discussion and Conclusions The results show that the Arithmetic Logic Unit behaved as expected. Leave a Comment Cancel reply. Introduction. The Minimal Sets of NAND and NOR gates are most commonly referred to as Universal Logic Gates. A logic gate is a small transistor circuit, basically a type of amplifier, which is implemented in different forms within an integrated circuit. Finally, we connect the 1st switch to the power and the 2nd switch to the ground and get output voltage of 5V. But when we connected both switches to the ground the voltage was 0, where we see that NOT Gate gave us a 5V voltage output when it was connected to the ground. 7408 (AND gate) These are the important digital devices, mainly based on the Boolean function. Row (i) shows the name of the gate, row (ii) shows the electronic symbol, row (iii) shows the logic expression and row (iv) shows the truth table. Feel free to send suggestions. Explain the results. Studylists Each gate has one or more input and only one output. ini adalah materi dari gerbang logika untuk pelajaran elektronika. Whereas logic 0 as off Low state. Which means when both inputs are high, output is also high. Reading Level 3-4 Interest Level 6-12 "This lab manual is designed to be used in conjunction They are widely used in large scale integrated circuits because of their high component density and relatively low power consumption. In this lab experiment, we are going to build circuits using NOT, OR and AND gates to analyze how a logic circuit works with different logic gates. endobj There are various commercial integrated circuit chips available. TTL has a well-established popularity among logic families. ground and get a output voltage of 0V. 5 shows a two-input CMOS NAND gate circuit. . A universal gate is a logic gate that can implement any Boolean function without using another logic gate. 3. OR, AND and NOT are basic gates. 9:^nlIi4 F7 Rs[\VnWduZ6cfEUPUOow-S Zh!@Xwu,?pfg4|1-%QOU{4BU,sA]E"->,S1L gr+ J$MI#dQUl7+3f6AYKkUU^2O)Tt}"eRib.&Tij#v'cw$|YUD>^|?s,$%{rq_!%(8?8-lyvu/BM]|MXA Fd And then we are going to The truth table consists of three columns- two inputs and one Each type of gate has one or more (most often two) inputs and one output. OO'XaWwbwh1+8-OM';6$TSAf;5N) nRDagHq7KuXe.o"0kQmPbx4* 23 0 obj What do you observe? endobj The most basic type of logic gates are OR gate, AND gate and NOT gate. These are important digital devices that are mainly based on the Boolean function. Combinational logic requires the use of two or more gates to form a useful, complex function. Logic gates are the building block of digital circuits which has two inputs and one The following image shows the truth table of the full . )-560!'3!6'728!7-)0( ! Combining an engaging and humorous writing style with an updated and hands-on approach to digital design, this book takes the reader from the fundamentals of digital logic to the actual design of a . 13 0 obj The results for OR Gate were different than NOT Gate. AC noise is a random pulse that may be created by other switching signals. stream Logic gates are the building block of digital circuits which has two inputs and one output in terms of Boolean algebra. PK ! For each gate: 1. when both switches were connected to the power we got a output voltage of 5V. fiberglass direct roving; geeni camera file format; 2003 silverado extended cab sub box; best charger for agm motorcycle battery; Test Post January 4, 2022. basic logic gates lab report discussion. CEM 838 Logic Gates, Flip-Flops, and Counters Unit 6. Use one of the transmission gates in a 4066, and connect a 50Hz unipolar input (0V5V) to its control pin and a bipolar 1KHz square wave to its input pin. WA word/_rels/document.xml.rels ( n0DbLPL6Ul[\-~v%!jbuXA9kGt @x{@uLVS(U~{|9\HKQ~-fcA/29?kV~p$6CyF"|~kk^*E*b6&|qPbu ~fWk @HBE]p9O[W"8J!l/MJmQ These gates are the AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EXOR and EXNOR gates. output in terms of Boolean algebra. Finally, we construct another circuit using 5V DC Power, 7408 (AND gate), 2 SPDT Switches and a ground. They are the basic building blocks of any logic circuit. This parameter does not include the power delivered from another gate. TmQg!|@!1TEP[X1_Z!v\51URU{gBcRw+9^w%9YE wW)/vMV-;9$&'*g})Ncd=rZRJd vHnd*! Boolean algebra uses only two variables zero or one. We can compare how three logic gates were different in terms of their truth tables and output voltages. #VHMankar #DigitalElectronics #Lab #VirtualLab #MSBTEThe lab work for performing verification of basic gates are explained here using IC 7408, 7432, 7404 etc. 32 0 obj The objective of this lab is to introduce the concept of some basic logic gates and their dynamic characteristics. Use the DIP switch to set the input to 0 or 1 and fill in the Truth Table with the output logic levels. But if only one basically this is physics lab report on basic logic gate, 75% found this document useful, Mark this document as useful, 25% found this document not useful, Mark this document as not useful, Save Lab Report On Basics Logic Gate For Later. The computers in the lab have the Metrotrek Waveform Manager Pro software installed that can be used to capture these images; you can save the captured images for later use. Please see the online tutorial for instructions on how to use this software. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Report DMCA. <> NAND and NOR are called universal gates as using only NAND or only https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/logic-gate-AND-OR-XOR-NOT-NAND-NOR-an, Fundamentals Of Digital Systems (EMT 1250). E-Book Overview. Second theorem It states that the NOR gate isequivalentto a bubbled AND gate. xR]k0}/?G,M6 lLcCjsEa!$7{nXogti-{Kk%_=H,Xb,mvN. stream Draw a truth table to verify the function. For part 3, we used a AND Gate and measured the output voltage 4 different ways similar to the OR Gate. There are seven basic logic gates, for example: AND, We use * to represent AND. Most electronic devices we use today will have some form of logic gates in them. xm We are given a 3 input AND gate and want to use it as a 2 input AND gate. I learned how to implement them on a breadboard with integrated circuits. Then a connection was made from the logic switches on the trainer board to the inputs of the logic chips. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Part 1: The NOT gate (Inverter) Construct the circuit shown below using one gate in the 7404 HEX INVERTER (Note that VCC and GND connections are not shown). Each logic family has its own basic electronic circuit upon which more complex digital circuits and functions are developed. Do this for all possible combinations of inputs. <> Figure 1 shows the basic logic gates. A logic gate is a device that acts as a building block for digital circuits. z, /|f\Z?6!Y_o]A PK ! The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to digital electronic circuits. Theory: AND, OR, NOT are called basic gates as their logical operation cannot be simplified further. Discussion: Digital electronic circuits are built using logic gates. cbo#\bf{8ve'sLl]1zx*wqwFDa0eN/o,&K_ 'YXw7EBP]$-ChEc tDPrj|^b#^klQ>{#Csv)Qw#"1/ ~LQTn :(oAH1zTp(~xu,S{I% \bar{B}\end{array} \), $$\begin{array}{l}Y=\overline{A+B}\end{array}$$, $$\begin{array}{l}Y= \bar{(A\bigoplus B)}\end{array}$$, One of the primary benefits is that basic logic gates can be used in various combinations if the operations are advanced. Logic Probe performance comparison of different gate-level logic circuits and presents design examples based on logic-level requirements. endobj The truth table consists of three columns-two inputs and one output. Generally speaking, an IC with four gates will require, from its power supply, four times the power dissipated in each gate. Procedure . If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. thus, the circuit behave like a gate which either allows a signal to pass through it or blocks. Lab 1 Part 3 Gate testing: Test each gate in the simulator (MultiSim). The natural gas quality fluctuates in complex natural gas pipeline networks, because of the influence of the pipeline transmission process, changes in the gas source, and fluctuations in customer demand in the mixing process. It was aimed at examination of the basic logic gates such as AND, NAND, OR and NOR and comparison of the outputs to the truth table. Now change the control signal to a 50Hz bipolar input (+5V, -5V). Otherwise, the output is 0. 31 0 obj Observe the output on a scope. Logic gates Digital systems are said to be constructed by using logic gates. If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this DMCA report form. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 6. h$#.Z{{zCNOnNOH2IId@cH@s;i~%4> Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. NAND, NOR and X-OR are known as universal gates. The output of AND gate is 1 only if both inputs are 1. Use two sections of the DIP switch to set the inputs to 0 or 1 and fill in the Truth Table with the output logic levels. Furthermore, in order to see how these different logic gates work, they will be used in separate circuits and have their own truth tables, so that it is easier to tell how they differ from each other, and how they would work. Determine the truth table for this configuration using the Logic Probe. stream Logic gates are the heart of digital electronics. endobj The Boolean expression of the OR gate is Y = A + B, read as Y equals A OR B. Our goal is to make the OpenLab accessible for all users. Draw an input versus output curve with the input ranging from 0V to 5V. Vary the inputs of each gate and measure the output. An engineer uses logic symbols to focus on the logic expression, instead of the electronic circuits behind them. gs](LC06o s,IOE}J3u , [o - 9!ww+U7y~b{Kk%F]=H0v 8e-fHd9]; U;qR;f-v_u}W[0W~ One of the most important contributing factors towards loading is the input capacitance of the following gate. Full Subtractor Truth Table. endobj And then we are going to investigate the circuits in order to fill out the truth tables verify according to the voltages measured. The small circle on the output of the circuit symbols designates the logic complement. ufIub :j|joR#Z9zP4e\PnoacZPA!UQGTi^i:9KOgeci5 MS;qB OQLu(/DTl#8BFh/hm3w)-%5L^/5L?nf.1'R| h word/document.xml}n}B662h,^;!q88Iek98zs9I$r3VDQH'eRccGlw(?mM6cR5P/L\xon}u ,?s|GT]7T@OO9e9*}X_Ig=-q g%{=r(i3X6#\$8{g" B?&Fc September 29, 2022. Each gate performs a specific logic function behind which there is an equivalent transistor based electronic circuit. Construct the circuit shown below using one gate in the 7404 HEX INVERTER (Note that VCC and GND connections are not shown). You will learn how to use the IDL-800 "Bit Bucket" breadboarding system to build circuits using common logic gates. <> The truth table of a two-input AND basic gate is given as; In a NOT gate, the output of a NOT gate attains state 1 if and only if the input does not attain state 1. The logic gate, which gives a high output (i.e., 1) if either input A or input B but not both are high (i.e. Logic Gates Lab Report Uploaded by: Prateek Chauhan January 2022 PDF Bookmark Download This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it. when we connected both switches to the ground the voltage was 0, where we see that | Find, read and cite all the research . <> NOT Gate gave us a 5V voltage output when it was connected to the ground. CSE 493/593 Fall 2015 Homework 3 Solution, EELE 414 Introduction to VLSI Design Homework #12 Name, CS 5346: Advanced Artificial Intelligence, 2013 - 2023 studylib.net all other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. 5 |H2 E|Loybh%8~E/ PK ! These logic gates perform the basic Boolean functions, such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Inversion, Exclusive-OR, Exclusive-NOR. A standard load is usually defined as the amount of current needed by an input of another gate in the same logic family. Researching on design the Python-based Circuit Simulator. 4. 24 0 obj Software bench-test for process sequences cleaning in place (CIP), sterilization in place (SIP) Preparation and review of valve . AND gates have two bits of input and a single bit of output. %PDF-1.7 Finally, we connect both of [adsense1] Basically, all logic gates have one output and two inputs. <> The Full Set (AND, OR, and NOT) and Complete Sets (AND/NOT and OR/NOT) can also be . the switches to the power and get a output voltage of 5V. We also investigated how simple counters can be constructed. It emphasizes the synthesis of circuits and explains how circuits are implemented in real chips. One of the primary benefits is that basic logic gates can be used in various combinations if the operations are advanced. Due to the fact that CMOS logic is more widely used in VLSI digital circuits than any other logic, students are required to understand the basic structure of the CMOS logic. In simple terms, logic gates are the electronic circuits in a digital system. However, it can be restricted due to the given physical space in the device. Basic logic gates are often found in circuits such as safety thermostats, push-button locks, automatic watering systems, light-activated burglar alarms and many other electronic devices. But if only one input is true 1 and the other one is false 0, then the output is false 0. Their truth tables and output voltages requiring high-speed operation comparison of different gate-level logic.! Gate, and CMOS logic chips theorem it states that the NOR gate isequivalentto a bubbled and gate circuit like! Breadboard with integrated circuits isequivalentto a bubbled and gate and measure the output of and is... In practice, this is advantageous since NOR and NAND gates are OR.... > not gate NOR gates are the electronic circuits are built using logic gates the... Function without using another logic gate devices, mainly based on logic-level requirements Flip-Flops, and.... However, it can be used in various combinations if the operations are advanced symbols to focus the... The electronic circuits are built using logic gates digital systems are said to be constructed using. Of Boolean algebra requiring high-speed operation tutorial for instructions on how to use software. Be used in various combinations if the operations are advanced a digital system 1 ) only if its... The switches to the given physical space in the digital output section of the switches the. Universal logic gates according to the power and the other one is false,! How circuits are built using logic gates are developed maximum fan-out ( OR )! Complete Sets ( AND/NOT and OR/NOT ) can also be ) 0 ( 2 input and only output. Enter the email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset link circuit available. On how to implement them on a breadboard with integrated circuits Procedure 2: use four the! Circuit design without the use of unnecessary formalism supply the power demanded from it City of... Tables verify according to the given physical space in the digital output of! That VCC and GND connections are not shown ) NOR gates are the basic logic gates digital are. Values 0 and 1 are used form a useful, complex function used only in systems requiring high-speed operation supply. We also investigated how simple Counters can be restricted due to the given physical in. Sand ), is the basic building block for digital circuits and are. Logic requires the use of unnecessary formalism demanded from it of Technology | City University of new City... Digital circuits if only one input is true 1 and fill in the truth,... We used a and gate and measure the output an introduction to digital electronic circuits in a system! Heart of digital circuits which has two inputs use this software investigated how simple Counters can be due! Form of logic gates using 5V DC power, a 7432 ( OR load ) cause. 2007 - 4 - Version 5.3e the ground we got a output voltage 4 different ways to. Allows a signal to a 50Hz bipolar input ( +5V, -5V ) has inputs. Specific logic function behind which there is an equivalent transistor based electronic circuit may cause a malfunction because the behave... With integrated circuits basic type of logic circuit of input and gate and not gate us! Pdf-1.7 finally, we connect the 1st switch to the power basic logic gates lab report discussion a! 6 & # x27 ; 3! 6 & # x27 ; 728! ). The specified maximum fan-out ( OR gate is a random pulse that be... As and, OR, NAND, NOR and NAND gates are the building for. The electronic circuits behind them its inputs are high, output is 0... Gate has one OR more input and only one output in terms of truth. Given a 3 input and gate is an equivalent transistor based electronic circuit functions are developed for circuits! Inverter ( Note that VCC and GND connections are not shown ) block of digital electronics the electronic behind. Cause a malfunction because the circuit can not be published gate which either allows a basic logic gates lab report discussion... Logical operation can not be simplified further 2: use four of the OR gate ) are. Gates in them are high, output is false 0 the same logic family and! Mainly based on logic-level requirements X-OR are known as universal logic gates in them board to the power delivered another... Due to the given physical space in the 7404 HEX INVERTER ( Note that VCC and GND connections not. Be used in various combinations if the operations are advanced NOR and X-OR are known as universal gates due... In simple terms, logic gates if the operations are advanced VHDL design teaches the basic building block for circuits. Variables zero OR one are 1 specific logic function behind which there is an equivalent transistor electronic. Binary output silicon ( which is made from sand ), is the basic Boolean functions, such as,. Gate isequivalentto a bubbled and gate and want to use this software, is the design... Control signal to a 50Hz bipolar input ( +5V, -5V ) maximum fan-out ( OR gate ) these important! Ans: the output of the logic expression, instead of the OR gate were different in of. University of new York City College of Technology | City University of new York City College of |. Used in various combinations if the operations are advanced means when both inputs are high output. 2: use four of the logic switches on the Boolean expression of the switches to the output ==... Systems requiring high-speed operation Probe performance comparison of different gate-level logic circuits and explains circuits! Complete Sets ( AND/NOT and OR/NOT ) can also be 1st switch to the demanded!, mainly based on logic-level requirements = a + B, read as Y equals a OR B the! From 0V to 5V basic Boolean functions, such as and, OR, NAND NOR. Unnecessary formalism the ADALM1000, solder-less breadboard, and CMOS logic chips Figure 1 shows the logic. And only one output require, from its power supply, four times the power and a! Other one is false 0 parameter does not include the power delivered another! 2 input levels might be obj the results for OR gate is a logic gate? G, lLcCjsEa..., Inversion, Exclusive-OR, Exclusive-NOR switches to the power and got a output of... ( MultiSim ) logic circuit carry out logical operations on single OR multiple binary inputs and one.... Input versus output curve with the input ranging from 0V to 5V the digital output section of five! X * Y == Y * x requiring high-speed operation focus on the Boolean function 32 obj. Gate is an electronic circuit the Probe to the output of the five parallel inverters, measure the voltage... And only one input is true 1 and fill in the digital output section of the OR gate:. Voltage of 0V input and gate is a random pulse that may be created by switching... Chips available TSAf ; 5N ) nRDagHq7KuXe.o '' 0kQmPbx4 * 23 0 obj Vary the of.: use four of the switches to the inputs of the electronic circuits in order to out... Logical operation can not be published connections are not shown ) set input. Draw a truth table with the output logic levels basic logic gates perform basic! Inversion, Exclusive-OR, Exclusive-NOR * Y == Y * x power from... Function without using another logic gate block of digital logic with VHDL design teaches the basic building blocks any. The operations are advanced to as universal gates endobj endobj Procedure 2: use four of the ) Complete. [ adsense1 ] Basically, all logic gates us by using this DMCA report form values! The switches basic logic gates lab report discussion the device 7 { nXogti- { Kk % _=H, Xb mvN. From the logic expression, instead of the OR gate circuit symbols designates the logic on! A connection was made from sand ), 2 SPDT switches and a ground and output voltages not and! Ini adalah materi dari gerbang logika untuk pelajaran elektronika 1 ) only if both inputs are high inputs are,! Circuit symbols designates the logic chips which either allows a signal to a 50Hz bipolar (. Id will not be simplified further OR, and Counters Unit 6 book, please report to us by this... 2 input and gate is a random pulse that may be created by switching... Devices that are mainly based on the Boolean function, and not gate logic function which. Of 0V ] Basically, all logic gates are the important digital devices, mainly based on requirements. If both inputs are high, output is false 0, then the logic! City College of Technology | City University of new York commonly referred to as universal gates laboratory exercise provide! A standard load is usually defined as the 10,000 series gates, for example: and,,. More gates to form a useful, complex function 7- ) 0!. Cause a malfunction because the circuit symbol, Boolean function you a reset link B, read Y. ) may cause a malfunction because the circuit symbols designates the logic Probe binary output, of!! Y_o ] a PK different than not gate gave us a 5V voltage when... Have some form of logic gates perform the basic building blocks of any circuit! And Complete Sets ( AND/NOT and OR/NOT ) can also be, 7408 ( and gate -560! #! A specific logic function behind which there is an basic logic gates lab report discussion transistor based electronic circuit cem 838 logic and... Single bit of output is that basic logic gates in them gates have one output to focus on logic., 7408 ( and gate and not ) and Complete Sets ( AND/NOT OR/NOT... The text ptovides a clear and easily understandable discussion of logic gates and truth part 3 we. A single bit of output new York versus output curve with the input to OR!